Weather and Climate Review
Weather and Climate Review
Weather - the condition of the atmosphere as it is affected by temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind and weather.
Wind - the horizontal movement of air
Thermal - a small upward flow of warm air
Convection cells - large wind patterns in Earth’s atmosphere caused by convection
Coriolis Effect - the bending of currents of air or water due to Earth’s rotation
Meteorologist - an individual who uses scientific principles to forecast the weather
Dew Point - the temperature at which more weather condenses than evaporates in an air mass
Cloud - A group of water droplets or ice crystals that you can see in the atmosphere
Two common air masses affecting the US are the Continental Polar Air Mass and the Maritime Tropical Air Mass
Front - the border between two different masses.
Cold Front - A front that occurs when a cold air mass moves in and replaces a warm air mass.
Warm front - A front that occurs when a warm air mass moves in and replaces a cold air mass
A cold front is a warm-cold air boundary with the colder air replacing the warmer. As a cold front moves into an area, the heavier cool air pushes under the lighter warm air that it is replacing. The warm air becomes cooler as it rises. If the rising air is humid enough, the water vapor it contains will condense into clouds and precipitation may fall.
As the cold front moves, warm, moist unstable air is usually replaced by cold, dry stable air.
A warm front is the boundary between warm and cool (or cold) air when the warm air is replacing the cold air. Warm air at the surface pushes above the cool air mass, making clouds and storms. Warm fronts often bring stormy weather. Warm fronts often form on the east side of low-pressure systems where warmer air from the south is pushed north.
A warm front typically replaces cool dry air with warm moist air.
Low Pressure center - a low pressure area created by rising warm air
High Pressure center - a high pressure area created by sinking cold air
Thunderstorms - is a violent, short-lived weather disturbance that is almost always associated with lightning, thunder, dense clouds, heavy rain or hail, and strong, gusty winds.
Cyclone - a low-pressure center surrounded by rotating winds
A tropical; cyclone with wind speeds of at least 74 miles per hour
Tornadoes - a system of rotating winds around a low pressure center
Global Surface Wind Patterns
Trade winds - winds currents that move between the equator and 30 degrees North and the equator and 30 degrees South
Prevailing Winds - winds currents that move between the 30 degrees North and 60 degrees North and, between the 30 degrees South and 60 degrees South
Polar Easterlies - Between the North Pole and the 60 degrees North and, between the South Pole and 60 degrees South. The polar easterlies meet the prevailing westerlies at a boundary called the polar front.
Climate - the long term record of weather patterns
Biome- A major climate region
Deserts - less than 35 cm of rainfall
Grasslands - no enough rainfall to create a rainforest
Deciduous Forests -middle-latitude regions
Rainforests - near the equator
Taigas - the largest biome. Average temperature is below freezing
Tundras - the coldest biome on Earth
Biodiversity - the variety and number of organisms that live in an area
Factors that affect biomes