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Conoce el maestro

My name is Pedro J. Miletti. I’m so thrilled to be the middle school’s Science teacher! It’s going to be a great year full of learning and meaningful experiences for all. This year will be my 6th year teaching Science and the third one teaching in the US. The first three were in Puerto Rico. I completed a bachelor’s degree in Chemistry and a Master’s Degree in Math Teaching and Curriculum.

Science is one of the most important subjects students study because it gives them the critical thinking skills they need in every subject. I believe in Learning by doing, teamwork and inquiry.

A few things about me: I have been married for 26 years to Maestra Vega. We have one daughter, Sariyoan and two wonderful grandchildren Sophia (5) and Sebastian (3). They take up most of my free time but some things I enjoy are cooking, exercise, playing guitar and going to the movies.

 

 

Recent Posts

Weather and Climate Review

Weather and Climate Review


Vocabulary


Weather - the condition of the atmosphere as it is affected by temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind and weather.


Wind - the horizontal movement of air


Thermal - a small upward flow of warm air


Convection cells - large wind patterns in Earth’s atmosphere caused by convection


Coriolis Effect - the bending of currents of air or water due to Earth’s rotation


Meteorologist - an individual who uses scientific principles to forecast the weather


Dew Point - the temperature at which more weather condenses than evaporates in an air mass


Cloud - A group of water droplets  or ice crystals that you can see in the atmosphere




Two common air masses affecting the US are the Continental Polar Air Mass and the Maritime Tropical Air Mass



Front - the border between two different masses.


Cold Front - A front that occurs when a cold air mass moves in and replaces a warm air mass.


Warm front - A front that occurs when a warm air mass moves in and replaces a cold air mass


A cold front is a warm-cold air boundary with the colder air replacing the warmer. As a cold front moves into an area, the heavier cool air pushes under the lighter warm air that it is replacing. The warm air becomes cooler as it rises. If the rising air is humid enough, the water vapor it contains will condense into clouds and precipitation may fall.

As the cold front moves, warm, moist unstable air is usually replaced by cold, dry stable air.

A warm front is the boundary between warm and cool (or cold) air when the warm air is replacing the cold air. Warm air at the surface pushes above the cool air mass, making clouds and storms. Warm fronts often bring stormy weather. Warm fronts often form on the east side of low-pressure systems where warmer air from the south is pushed north.

A warm front typically replaces cool dry air with warm moist air.

Low Pressure center - a low pressure area created by rising warm air



High Pressure center - a high pressure area created by sinking cold air






Thunderstorms - is a violent, short-lived weather disturbance that is almost always associated with lightning, thunder, dense clouds, heavy rain or hail, and strong, gusty winds.



https://scied.ucar.edu/webweather/thunderstorms/how-thunderstorms-form


Cyclone - a low-pressure center surrounded by rotating winds


Hurricanes

A tropical; cyclone with wind speeds of at least 74 miles per hour



https://scied.ucar.edu/webweather/hurricanes/how-hurricanes-form


Tornadoes - a system of rotating winds around a low pressure center



https://scied.ucar.edu/webweather/tornadoes/how-tornadoes-form


El Niño - is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting the climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.





https://scied.ucar.edu/teaching-box/el-nino-southern-oscillation



Global Surface Wind Patterns


Trade winds - winds currents that move between the equator and 30 degrees North and the equator and 30 degrees South


Prevailing Winds - winds currents that move between the 30 degrees North and 60 degrees North and,  between the 30 degrees South and 60 degrees South


Polar Easterlies - Between the North  Pole and the 60 degrees North and, between the South Pole and 60 degrees South. The polar easterlies meet the prevailing westerlies at a boundary called the polar front.


Climate - the long term record of weather patterns


Biome- A major climate region


Deserts - less than 35 cm of rainfall

Grasslands - no enough rainfall to create a rainforest

Deciduous Forests -middle-latitude regions

Rainforests - near the equator

Taigas - the largest biome. Average temperature is below freezing

Tundras - the coldest biome on Earth


Biodiversity - the variety  and number of organisms that live in an area


Factors that affect biomes

Sunlight

Altitude

Atmosphere and Water Cycle Review

Water Cycle and Atmosphere Review


Vocabulary


Atmosphere - a blanket of gases that surrounds the Earth


Air - the mixture of gases that makes up the atmosphere


Atmospheric Pressure - a measure of the force per unit area of air molecules in the atmosphere


Altitude - a measure of the distance of an object is above sea level


Barometer - an instrument that measure atmospheric pressure


Clarke  Belt - orbit path of the satellites


CFC’s - were once commonly used in air conditioners, in aerosol spray cans and for cleaning machine parts. CFC’s travel up to the stratosphere breaking down the ozone layer


Specific Heat - amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of i g  of substance 1C. Higher SH slower heats up, slower cools down. Lower Specific Heat, faster heats up, faster cools down.


Rotation - the turning motion of a planet as it spins on its axis


Revolution - the motion of the planet around its star




















Layers of the atmosphere



 

Size

Features

Temperature

Troposphere

11 Km

Weather

75% atmosphere mass

Temperature decreases as you go up

Stratosphere

11 to 50 km above Earth surface

Ozone layer

Weather balloons

Temperature increases as you go up

Mesosphere

50 to 80 km above Earth’s surface

Meteors (shooting stars)

Coldest

Temp as low as -90C

Temperature decreases as you go up

Thermosphere

Begins at  80 km above Earth’s surface

Low density of air

Temp reaches 1800 C

High Temperatures, low heat transfer

Temperature increases as you go up



Thermosphere can be divided in:


Ionosphere - UV rays create charged atoms called ions. Ions transmit electricity and electromagnetic waves. Northern Lights


Exosphere - begins at about 500 km  above Earth and does not have a specific outer limit. Satellites


What gases are in the atmosphere?


78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 0.93% Argon and 0.04% Carbon Dioxide. There are also tiny amounts of Helium, Methane, Krypton and Hydrogen




Why aren’t we crushed by the atmospheric pressure?


Forces inside and outside the body are balanced


What are some units of pressure?


Atmospheres (At), inches of mercury (in Hg), pounds per square inch (psi), pascals (Pa), bars


Why is Earth neither too cold nor too hot?


Earth has an atmosphere that traps some of the Sun’s energy.

The Earth turns rapidly enough so that there isn’t enough time for our night temperature to sink too low.



Why does Earth have Seasons?


Because it is tilted (23.5 degrees) on its axis. During summer the northern hemisphere receives sunlight that is more direct than it is in the winter.


Vocabulary


Condensation - the conversion of a vapor or gas to a liquid.


Precipitation - rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls to the ground.


Transpiration - is the process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere. Transpiration is essentially evaporation of water from plant leaves.


Hydrosphere - all the waters on the earth's surface, such as lakes and seas, and sometimes including water over the earth's surface, such as clouds.


Reservoir - a large natural or artificial lake used as a source of water supply.


Groundwater - water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock.

Atmosphere - the envelope of gases surrounding the earth or another planet.


Water table - the level below which the ground is saturated with water.


 

 

 

 

Water cycle - the cycle of processes by which water circulates between the earth's oceans, atmosphere, and land, involving precipitation as rain and snow, drainage in streams and rivers, and return to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration.


Aquifer - a body of permeable rock that can contain or transmit groundwater.

Watershed - an area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas.


Surface runoff - is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. A land area which produces runoff draining to a common point is called a watershed.


Percolation -  is the process of a liquid slowly passing through a filter.



http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/weather/thewatercycle.html



Importance of the water cycle


Heat is distributed across the earth

It helps plants growing which keep us breathing

Provides food to eat and access to clean water

Provides support to other cycles such as; Nitrogen Cycle, Carbon cycle, etc.


How transpiration works?


Transpiration is the process of water vapor being released from plants and soil. Plants release water vapor through microscopic pores called stomata. The opening of stomata is strongly influenced by light, and so is often associated with the sun and the process of evaporation. Evapotranspiration is the combined components of evaporation and transpiration, and is sometimes used to evaluate the movement of water in the atmosphere.



Forces that move the water cycle


Sun

Weather

Wind

8th Grade; Waves and light review

Waves and light Review


Vocabulary


Linear motion -motion that goes one place to another

Harmonic motion - motion that repeats in cycles

Cycle - a unit of motion that repeats

Period - the time that it takes for each complete cycle. Unit: seconds

T = 1/f

Frequency - How often something repeats. Unit: Hertz

F = 1/T

Amplitude - the amount that a cycle moves away from equilibrium. Unit: cm

Natural Frequency - the frequency the system oscillates

Periodic Force - a repetitive force

Resonance - a large amplitude that develops when a periodic force is applied to the natural frequency

Wavelength (𝛌) - the distance from any point of a wave to the same point on the next cycle

Speed = 𝛌𝑓

Transverse Waves - a wave vibrating at right angles to the direction of its propagation.

Longitudinal waves - a wave vibrating in the same direction of its propagation

Reflection - the wave bounces and goes in the new direction

Refraction - the wave bends as it passes into and through an object

Diffraction - the wave bends around an object or through holes in the object

Absorption - the wave is absorbed and disappears

Constructive interference - happens when waves add up to make a larger amplitude

Destructive interference - waves add up to make a wave with smaller or zero amplitude.

Doppler effect - a decrease or increase in frequency caused by the motion of the source

Color - how we perceive the energy of light

Electromagnetic wave - a wave of electricity and magnetism

RGB color model - a model to create colors by mixing red, blue and green

CMYK color process - subtractive color process using cyan,magenta, yellow and black

Transparency - light pass through without scattering

Translucency - light rays through but scatters in all directions

Converging lens - bends light so that the light come together in a point. Magnifies objects.

Diverging Lens - bends light so it spread light apart. Objects appear smaller.

Index of refraction - a number that measure how much a material is able to bend light










Parts of a wave




Transverse and longitudinal waves




reflection, refraction, diffraction and absorption






Constructive and destructive interference



The doppler effect

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h4OnBYrbCjY



Problems


A wave with a wavelength of 10 cm has a frequency of 0.5 Hertz. Calculate the Speed of the wave.


Speed = 𝛌𝑓

Speed = (10 cm)(0.5 Hz)

Speed = 5 cm/s








What is the Period (T) of the wave?


T = 1/f

T = 1/0.5

T = 2 s


The musical note A above middle C has a frequency of 440 Hz. If the speed of sound is known to be 350 m/s, what is the wavelength of this note?


Speed = 𝛌𝑓

Speed/𝑓 = 𝛌

350 m/s ÷ 440 Hz = 𝛌

0.79 m = 𝛌

6th Grade: Chapter 5 Test Review

6th Grade Chapter 5 Science Test Review


Vocabulary


Atmosphere - a blanket of gases that surrounds the Earth


Air - the mixture of gases that makes up the atmosphere


Atmospheric Pressure - a measure of the force per unit area of air molecules in the atmosphere


Altitude - a measure of the distance of an object is above sea level


Barometer - an instrument that measure atmospheric pressure


Clarke  Belt - orbit path of the satellites


CFC’s - were once commonly used in air conditioners, in aerosol spray cans and for cleaning machine parts. CFC’s travel up to the stratosphere breaking down the ozone layer


Specific Heat - amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of i g  of substance 1C. Higher SH slower heats up, slower cools down. Lower Specific Heat, faster heats up, faster cools down.


Rotation - the turning motion of a planet as it spins on its axis


Revolution - the motion of the planet around its star















Layers of the atmosphere



 

Size

Features

Temperature

Troposphere

11 Km

Weather

75% atmosphere mass

Temperature decreases as you go up

Stratosphere

11 to 50 km above Earth surface

Ozone layer

Weather ballons

Temperature increases as you go up

Mesosphere

50 to 80 km above Earth’s surface

Meteors (shooting stars)

Coldest

Temp as low as -90C

Temperature decreases as you go up

Thermosphere

Begins at  80 km above Earth’s surface

Low density of air

Temp reaches 1800 C

High Temperatures, low heat transfer

Temperature increases as you go up



Thermosphere can be divided in:


Ionosphere - UV rays create charged atoms called ions. Ions transmit electricity and electromagnetic waves. Northern Lights


Exosphere - begins at about 500 km  above Earth and does not have a specific outer limit. Satellites


What gases are in the atmosphere?


78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 0.93% Argon and 0.04% Carbon Dioxide. There are also tiny amounts of Helium, Methane, Krypton and Hydrogen


Why aren’t we crushed by the atmospheric pressure?


Forces inside and outside the body are balanced


What are some units of pressure?


Atmospheres (At), inches of mercury (in Hg), pounds per square inch (psi), pascals (Pa), bars


Why is Earth neither too cold nor too hot?


Earth has an atmosphere that traps some of the Sun’s energy.

The Earth turns rapidly enough so that there isn’t enough time for our night temperature to sink too low.


Why does Earth have Seasons?


Because it is tilted (23.5 degrees) on its axis. During summer the northern hemisphere receives sunlight that is more direct than it is in the winter.





7th Grade: Science Test Review on Energy and Machines

Physical Sciences Chapter 6 Science Test Review

7th Grade Maestro Miletti


Vocabulary


Energy - the ability to change in a physical system

System - is a group of objects and variables that are related

Joule (J) - the unit of measurement for energy

Law of Conservation of Energy - Energy can never be created or destroyed just converted from one form

Kinetic energy - energy of motion

Ek = 1/2mv2

Potential energy - energy of position

EP = mgh

Work - energy that comes from a force applied over distance(units: Joules)

W = Fd

Power - the rate of doing work (Units: Watts)

P = W/t

Machine - a device with moving parts that work together to accomplish a task

Simple machine - an unpowered mechanical device that accomplish a task with only one movement

Input force - the force you apply to the machine

Output force - the force the machine applies to what are you trying to move

Efficiency - the ratio of output work divided by input work

Efficiency = (OW / IW) 100

Mechanical Advantage - the ratio of output force divided by input force

MA = (OF / IF) or MA = length of effort /height of resistance

Fulcrum - the point on which a lever rests or is supported and on which it pivots.


There are 6 basic simple machines; the lever, the wheel and axle, the inclined plane, the wedge, the pulley, and the screw.


The outwork of a simple  machine is always less than, or equal to, the input of work


Perfect machines are impossible because some friction is always present


An important way to increase the efficiency of a machine is to reduce friction


How simple machines work?

Making work easier by magnifying or changing the direction of a force.



Problems


Calculate the Kinetic and Potential energy of a 0.25 Kg ball 0.5 m above the ground with a velocity of 10m/s. What is the total energy of the system?


m = 0.25 kg h = 0.5 m v = 10 m/s g = 9.8 m/s2



Ek = 1/2mv2

Ek = ½ (0.25 kg)(10 m/s)2

Ek = ½ (0.25) (100)

Ek = ½ (25)

Ek = 12.5 J


EP = mgh

EP = (0.25 kg) (9.8 m/s2)(0.5 m)

EP = 1.225 J


ET = Ek + EP

ET = 12.5 J + 1.225 J

ET = 13.725 J


How much work is done by a person who pulls a cart with a force of 50 N if the cart moves 20 m in the direction of the force?


W = Fd

W = (50 N)(20 m)

W = 1000 J


Calculate the force needed to obtain 6000 J of work across 20 meters


W = Fd

W/d = F

6000 J/ 20 m = F

300 N = F








Calculate the power of a  weightlifter who moves 2 meter a weight of 100 N in 10 seconds.


First we calculate the Work


W = Fd

W = (100 N) (2 m)

W = 200 J


Then:


P = W/t


P = 200 J/ 10 s

P = 20 Watts



Calculate the efficiency of a car if the input work is 250 J and the output is 35 J


Efficiency = (OW / IW) 100

Efficiency = (35 / 250) 100

Efficiency = 14%



You apply a force of 18 N on to the end of a lever to open a paint can lid. The resistance of the lid is 9 N. Calculate the MA.


MA = (OF / IF)

MA = (9 N / 18 N)

MA = ½